“Semua ide besar selalu berbahaya,” demikian ucapan klasik Oscar Wilde. Menyimak ucapan itu, ‘bahaya’ yang segera terbayang mungkin berupa bahaya akan munculnya suatu gerakan revolusioner karena ide besar tersebut.

Tak sepenuhnya salah. Namun bahaya lain, yang juga sering membumbui ide besar, adalah bahaya dimana ide tersebut disalah-arti oleh orang-orang yang bersemangat akannya. Akhirnya yang terlihat hanyalah sebuah gerakan distortif atas nama ide tersebut, atau malah sekedar penghargaan dan kritik, tanpa pernah mewujudkannya.

Gambaran itu nampaknya berlaku pula untuk ide tentang pendidikan yang membebaskan. Dunia akademis Barat di dasawarsa 1970 hingga 1980-an (dan Indonesia sejak akhir 1980-an) dijumpai oleh sebuah tambahan khasanah baru untuk teori pendidikan kritis.

Pelopornya adalah seorang doktor filsafat pendidikan, yang sukses dengan metode pemberantasan buta huruf di kalangan petani Brasil pada era 1960-an (ironisnya, sang guru besar malah terdepak dari negerinya, karena metodenya dinilai subversif oleh rezim yang baru). Adalah buku “Pendidikan Kaum Tertindas (Pedagogy of the Oppressed)” yang dianggap sebagai magnum opus untuk tambahan khasanah teori pendidikan tadi. Lalu apa jadinya teori itu?

Sang doktor sendiri, Paulo Freire, mencatat banyak respon yang muncul atas karya besarnya ini. Baik dari kalangan liberal, Kristiani maupun golongan sosialis. Kritik tentu saja ada, namun kebanyakan perespon sangat bersemangat akan ide besarnya.

Walau demikian, tidak sedikit yang hanya memakai ide-ide Freire untuk membenarkan asumsi mereka tentang pendidikan dan pergerakan. Atau sekedar bertepuk tangan atas idealismenya. Bahkan di Brasil dan kebanyakan negara yang rezimnya otoriter-kapitalis (termasuk Indonesia sebelum reformasi), ide-ide Freire seringkali ditolak dan dilarang tanpa pernah dicoba-selami.

Kesetujuan orang atas Freire terutama sekali menyangkut kritik Freire atas metode pendidikan penindas yang disebutnya sebagai model pendidikan ‘gaya bank’ (yang hanya menjejali naradidik dengan bahan hafalan, lihat Bab 2 buku ini).

Demikian pula banyak sekali orang tertarik akan metode yang digunakan Freire sehingga bisa membuat para petani mau belajar dan bisa membaca dalam waktu singkat.

Minat juga tumbuh untuk unggahan ide Freire soal model pendidikan ‘hadap masalah’ (lihat Bab 3) sebagai jawaban kritiknya atas pendidikan ‘gaya bank’ tadi. Namun jika hanya sampai di situ, boleh dikatakan orang telah gagal dalam membaca Pendidikan Kaum Tertindas ini.

Freire mencontohkan bagaimana kegagalan membaca itu ia jumpai sendiri. Dalam bukunya yang lain (Pedagogi Pengharapan, yang terbit 25 tahun setelah buku ini), ia menceritakan empat orang pendidik berhaluan sosialis di Jerman Timur (pada awal 1970-an) begitu bersemangat akan ide dalam Pendidikan Kaum Tertindas.

Anda harus membicarakan ini kepada masyarakat borjuis, mereka begitu menjajah dalam mendidik,” demikian kata para pendidik tadi, “Tapi tidak di sini. Di sini kami tahu apa yang harus diketahui oleh para siswa.”[1]. Jelas sekali mereka gagal dalam membaca maksud Freire, karena mereka hanya mengekalkan penindasan, yaitu pendidikan ‘gaya bank’ dalam bentuknya yang lain.

Lalu bagaimana ‘seharusnya’ buku ini dibaca? F. Danuwinata benar ketika berpendapat bahwa Pendidikan Kaum Tertindas memang sulit untuk dicerna, namun penyelaman yang mendalam atas ide-ide Freire di buku ini akan menghasilkan timbaan inspirasi yang sangat besar (lihat Prawacana).

Kegagalan orang dalam membaca karya besar ini umumnya dikarenakan kegagalan dalam menghayati hakikat pendindasan, hakikat harapan, konsep dialog dan terutama konsep praksis yang diunggah Freire.

Maka dari itu kaum yang bermental penindas, orang yang kritis-apatis, orang yang berhasrat mendominasi dan orang-orang yang tak mau menyeimbangkan antara aksi dan refleksi hampir selalu dipastikan gagal dalam membaca Pendidikan Kaum Tertindas. Tepat di situlah keunikan karya ini!

Meski sudah cukup klasik (pertama kali terbit dalam edisi Bahasa Portugis, tahun 1970), pembahasan Freire soal bagaimana pendidikan yang membebaskan memang akan selalu bernas.

Dalam empat bab bahasan selepas pendahuluan, penyelamannya tentang hakikat penindasan (Bab 1) dan model pendidikan yang menindas (Bab 2), lalu model dialog (Bab 3) versus model antidialog (Bab 4) adalah hasil kesatuan sinambung antara aksi Freire di dunia pendidikan dan refleksinya akan dunia.

LP3ES selaku penerbit untuk edisi Bahasa Indonesia juga memperkaya buku ini dengan menyertakan uraian F.Danuwinata sebagai prawacana dan terjemahan pengantar edisi Bahasa Inggris dari Richard Shaull. Hal yang sangat membantu untuk menghantar pembaca yang baru mau berkenalan dengan ide-ide Freire.

Kelemahan yang boleh dijadikan catatan mungkin adalah simpati Freire yang agak berlebihan terhadap tokoh-tokoh revolusioner kiri. Beberapa kali Freire memang mengutip dengan takzim Che, Mao dan Lenin, namun tanpa menyinggung sisi buruk pergerakan mereka. Hal yang tentu agak mengganggu bagi pembaca yang kurang simpatik pada gerakan sosialis.

Tapi sedari awal Freire sudah mengajak agar semua kalangan yang menganggap dirinya progresif, mau bersabar untuk terlibat dalam penyelaman ide pendidikan yang membebaskan ini, kemudian mengkritisinya, lalu merumuskan hal yang hakiki dalam pendidikan yang membebaskan. Di sinilah teori pendidikan kritis, tidak berhenti jadi sebuah teori yang dikagumi atau dibenci, namun mewujud menjadi praksis pendidikan yang membebaskan.

Judul Buku: Pendidikan Kaum Tertindas
Penulis: Paulo Freire
Penerjemah: Tim Redaksi Asosiasi Pemandu Latihan LP3ES
Penyunting Terjemahan: Imam Ahmad
Penerbit: LP3ES
Tebal Halaman: 221 + xxxvii

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